Monday, November 21, 2011


Chilean women, victims of torture by army officer Miguel Krassnoff protest in front of Club Providencia where he was being celebrated by fellow officers.

Sunday, September 18, 2011


Josefa Ortiz married Miguel Domínguez in 1791 and moved to the town of Querétaro, where he was appointed corregidor (magistrate) by the viceroy of New Spain. Querétaro was a hotbed of revolutionary activity and Josefa was sympathetic to the independence cause. Miguel, as the highest official in town, had knowledge of crown affairs. Soon their home became a clearinghouse for information, with Josefa running intelligence to the independencistas, who were preparing to launch an uprising in December 1810. Colonial authorities got wind of the plans and ordered the town searched. Josefa warned the rebel leader, Miguel Hidalgo, who issued the call to arms on September 16, setting off the War of Independence. Josefa's role in the insurrection was eventually discovered and she was imprisoned in a nunnery from 1813 to 1817. La Corregidora, as she is known, is today revered as a heroine of the anticolonial struggle.

Rosa Chouteau
Flourished circa 1875, Oklahoma

The correct spelling of this name is ROSANA CHOUTEAU.

Rosana Chouteau was elected chief of the Osage Beaver Band, a clan of the Native American Osage Nation, in 1875, following the death of her uncle. She was the first female clan chief of that tribe

Ana Betancourt
b. 1832, Cuba; d. 1895, Cuba

The Cuban war of independence from Spain began in 1868. Mambisas—rebel women—played a crucial role in the insurgency, as political agitators, nurses, and fighters on the front lines. Ana Betancourt, a mambisa from a wealthy landholding family, belonged to the first generation of Cuban feminists. In 1869, she addressed the Constitutional Congress on behalf of women's rights, linking female emancipation to the abolition of slavery and the anticolonial struggle. Betancourt's plea went unheeded.


1412 � 30 May 1431
nicknamed "The Maid of Orl�ans" (French: Jeanne d'Arc, is considered a national heroine of France and a Catholic saint. A peasant girl born in eastern France who claimed divine guidance, she led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War, which paved the way for the coronation of Charles VII.
She was captured by the Burgundians, sold to the English, tried by an ecclesiastical court, and burned at the stake when she was 19 years old.
Twenty-five years after the execution, Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, pronounced her innocent and declared her a martyr.Joan of Arc was beatified in 1909 and canonized in 1920.[2] She is � along with St. Denis, St. Martin of Tours, St. Louis IX, and St. Theresa of Lisieux � one of the patron saints of France.

Joan asserted that she had visions from God that instructed her to recover her homeland from English domination late in the Hundred Years' War. The uncrowned King Charles VII sent her to the siege of Orl�ans as part of a relief mission. She gained prominence when she overcame the dismissive attitude of veteran commanders and lifted the siege in only nine days. Several more swift victories led to Charles VII's coronation at Reims and settled the disputed succession to the throne.

Santa Juana de Arco
6 de enero de 1412 � 30 de mayo de 1431,
tambi�n conocida como la Doncella de Orl�ans (o, en franc�s, la Pucelle), fue una hero�na, militar y santa francesa. Su festividad se celebra el d�a del aniversario de su muerte, como es tradici�n en la Iglesia Cat�lica, el 30 de mayo.Nacida en Domr�my, peque�o poblado situado en el departamento de los Vosgos en la regi�n de la Lorena, Francia, ya con 17 a�os encabez� el ej�rcito real franc�s. Convenci� al rey Carlos VII de que expulsar�a a los ingleses de Francia y �ste le dio autoridad sobre su ej�rcito en el Sitio de Orleans, la batalla de Patay y otros enfrentamientos en 1429 y 1430. Estas campa�as revitalizaron la facci�n de Carlos VII durante la Guerra de los Cien A�os y permitieron la coronaci�n del monarca.

Como recompensa, el rey eximi� al pueblo natal de Juana de Domr�my del impuesto anual a la corona. Esta ley se mantuvo en vigor hasta hace aproximadamente cien a�os. Posteriormente fue capturada por los borgo�ones y entregada a los ingleses. Los cl�rigos la condenaron por herej�a y el duque Juan de Bedford la quem� viva en Ruan. La mayor�a de los datos sobre su vida se basan en las actas de aquel proceso pero, en cierta forma, est�n desprovistos de cr�dito pues, seg�n diversos testigos presenciales del juicio, fueron sometidos a multitud de correcciones por orden del obispo Cauchon, as� como a la introducci�n de datos falsos. Entre estos testigos estaba el escribano oficial, designado s�lo por Cauchon, quien afirma que en ocasiones hab�a secretarios escondidos detr�s de las cortinas de la sala esperando instrucciones para borrar o agregar datos a las actas.

Susan Brownell Anthony
(February 15, 1820 � March 13, 1906)
was a prominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women�s rights movement to introduce women�s suffrage into the United States. She was co-founder of the first Women�s Temperance Movement with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as President.She also co-founded the women�s rights journal, The Revolution. She traveled the United States and Europe, and averaged 75 to 100 speeches per year.She was one of the important advocates in leading the way for women�s rights to be acknowledged and instituted in the American government.

Marian Anderson
A photograph of Anderson by Carl Van Vechten taken in 1940.
(February 27, 1897 � April 8, 1993)
Marian Anderson was an African-American contralto and one of the most celebrated singers of the twentieth century.
Music critic Alan Blyth said �Her voice was a rich, vibrant contralto of intrinsic beauty.�Most of her singing career was spent performing in concert and recital in major music venues and with major orchestras throughout the United States and Europe between 1925 and 1965. Although she was offered contracts to perform roles with many important European opera companies, Anderson declined all of these, preferring to perform in concert and recital only. She did, however, perform opera arias within her concerts and recitals. She made many recordings that reflected her broad performance repertoire of everything from concert literature to lieder to opera to traditional American songs and spirituals.
Anderson became an important figure in the struggle for black artists to overcome racial prejudice in the United States during the mid twentieth century. In 1939, the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) refused permission for Anderson to sing to an integrated audience in Constitution Hall. Their race-driven refusal placed Anderson into the spotlight of the international community on a level usually only found by high profile celebrities and politicians. With the aid of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, Anderson performed a critically acclaimed open-air concert on Easter Sunday, April 9, 1939, on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., to a crowd of more than 75,000 people and a radio audience in the millions. She continued to break barriers for black artists in the United States, becoming the first black person, American or otherwise, to perform at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City on January 7, 1955. Her performance as Ulrica in Giuseppe Verdi�s Un ballo in maschera at the Met was the only time she sang an opera role on stage.
Anderson was also an important symbol of grace and beauty during the civil rights movement in the 1960s, singing at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in 1963. She also worked for several years as a delegate to the United Nations Human Rights Committee and as a �goodwill ambassadress� for the United States Department of State. The recipient of numerous awards and honors, Anderson was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1963, the Kennedy Center Honors in 1978, the National Medal of Arts in 1986, and a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1991.
Marian Anderson�s picture appears in on the $5000 paper Series I Bond issued by the US Treasury.

Friday, September 16, 2011


Anne Boleyn

c.1501/1507 – 19 May 1536)

was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of Henry VIII of England and Marquess of Pembroke in her own right.[5] Henry's marriage to Anne, and her subsequent execution, made her a key figure in the political and religious upheaval that was the start of the English Reformation. A commoner, Anne was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard, and was educated in the Netherlands and France, largely as a maid of honour to Claude of France. She returned to England in early 1522, in order to marry her Irish cousin James Butler, 9th Earl of Ormond; however, the marriage plans ended in failure and she secured a post at court as maid of honour to Henry VIII's queen consort, Catherine of Aragon.
In the spring of 1523 there was a secret betrothal between Anne and Henry Percy son of the 5th Duke of Northumberland. However, in January of 1524 Cardinal Thomas Wolsey broke the betrothal, Anne was sent back home to Hever Castle, and Percy was married to
Lady Mary Talbot, to whom he had been betrothed since adolescence.
In February/ March of 1526 Henry VIII began courtly pursuit of Anne. She resisted his attempts to seduce her, refusing to become his mistress as her sister Mary had. It soon became the one absorbing object of Henry's desires to annul his marriage to Queen Catherine so he would be free to marry Anne. When it became clear that Pope Clement VII would not annul the marriage, the breaking of the power of the Catholic Church in England began.
Ana Bolena
reina consorte de Inglaterra, primera marqués de Pembroke.
Su fecha de nacimiento solía fijarse en 1507, pero los historiadores más modernos la datan en 1501 (— 19 de mayo de 1536).2 Ana fue la segunda esposa del rey Enrique VIII y la madre de la reina Isabel I. El matrimonio de Enrique y Ana y su posterior ejecución, fueron parte del complejo comienzo de la considerable agitación política y religiosa que fue la Reforma inglesa, con Ana participando activamente en la promoción de la causa de la reforma de la Iglesia. La han llamado «la reina consorte más influyente e importante que Inglaterra ha tenido nunca».

Ana Bolena es popularmente conocida por haber sido decapitada bajo acusación de adulterio, incesto y traición. Está extensamente asumido el haber sido inocente de los cargos, y fue conmemorada más tarde como mártir en la cultura Protestante inglesa, particularmente por los trabajos de John Foxe.
Louisa May Alcott

Louisa May Alcott at about age 25

Born November 29, 1832Germantown, PA, U.S.
Died March 6, 1888 (aged 55)Boston, MA, U.S.
Pen name A. M. Barnard
Occupation Novelist
Nationality American
Period Civil war
Subjects Young Adult stories
Notable work(s) Little Women

She is best known for the novel Little Women and its sequels Little Men and Jo's Boys. Little Women was set in the Alcott family home, Orchard House in Concord, Massachusetts, and published in 1868. This novel is loosely based on her childhood experiences with her three sisters.


Flourished circa 1671, Rhode Island

Awashonks was a Native American woman who served as chief of the Sakonnet tribe in Seconet, Rhode Island. In 1671, she was among the signers of a peace agreement between a confederation of local tribes and Plymouth Colony. However, she supported Chief Metacom when, after suffering years of humiliation at the hands of the whites, he broke the treaty in 1675 and attacked the English settlers. The conflict, known as King Philip's War, ended in a white victory in 1676, but by that time Awashonks had made peace with the settlers and switched sides.

Jane Addams

(September 6, 1860 – May 21, 1935)

She was a pioneer settlement worker, founder of Hull House in Chicago, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in woman suffrage and world peace. Alongside presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson she was the most prominent reformer of the Progressive Era and helped turn the nation to issues of concern to mothers, such as the needs of children, public health and world peace. She emphasized that women have a special responsibility to clean up their communities and make them better places to live, arguing they needed the vote to be effective. Addams became a role model for middle-class women who volunteered to uplift their communities.
She is increasingly being recognized as a member of the American pragmatist school of philosophy. In 1931 she became the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.