Sunday, September 18, 2011


1412 � 30 May 1431
nicknamed "The Maid of Orl�ans" (French: Jeanne d'Arc, is considered a national heroine of France and a Catholic saint. A peasant girl born in eastern France who claimed divine guidance, she led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War, which paved the way for the coronation of Charles VII.
She was captured by the Burgundians, sold to the English, tried by an ecclesiastical court, and burned at the stake when she was 19 years old.
Twenty-five years after the execution, Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, pronounced her innocent and declared her a martyr.Joan of Arc was beatified in 1909 and canonized in 1920.[2] She is � along with St. Denis, St. Martin of Tours, St. Louis IX, and St. Theresa of Lisieux � one of the patron saints of France.

Joan asserted that she had visions from God that instructed her to recover her homeland from English domination late in the Hundred Years' War. The uncrowned King Charles VII sent her to the siege of Orl�ans as part of a relief mission. She gained prominence when she overcame the dismissive attitude of veteran commanders and lifted the siege in only nine days. Several more swift victories led to Charles VII's coronation at Reims and settled the disputed succession to the throne.

Santa Juana de Arco
6 de enero de 1412 � 30 de mayo de 1431,
tambi�n conocida como la Doncella de Orl�ans (o, en franc�s, la Pucelle), fue una hero�na, militar y santa francesa. Su festividad se celebra el d�a del aniversario de su muerte, como es tradici�n en la Iglesia Cat�lica, el 30 de mayo.Nacida en Domr�my, peque�o poblado situado en el departamento de los Vosgos en la regi�n de la Lorena, Francia, ya con 17 a�os encabez� el ej�rcito real franc�s. Convenci� al rey Carlos VII de que expulsar�a a los ingleses de Francia y �ste le dio autoridad sobre su ej�rcito en el Sitio de Orleans, la batalla de Patay y otros enfrentamientos en 1429 y 1430. Estas campa�as revitalizaron la facci�n de Carlos VII durante la Guerra de los Cien A�os y permitieron la coronaci�n del monarca.

Como recompensa, el rey eximi� al pueblo natal de Juana de Domr�my del impuesto anual a la corona. Esta ley se mantuvo en vigor hasta hace aproximadamente cien a�os. Posteriormente fue capturada por los borgo�ones y entregada a los ingleses. Los cl�rigos la condenaron por herej�a y el duque Juan de Bedford la quem� viva en Ruan. La mayor�a de los datos sobre su vida se basan en las actas de aquel proceso pero, en cierta forma, est�n desprovistos de cr�dito pues, seg�n diversos testigos presenciales del juicio, fueron sometidos a multitud de correcciones por orden del obispo Cauchon, as� como a la introducci�n de datos falsos. Entre estos testigos estaba el escribano oficial, designado s�lo por Cauchon, quien afirma que en ocasiones hab�a secretarios escondidos detr�s de las cortinas de la sala esperando instrucciones para borrar o agregar datos a las actas.

Susan Brownell Anthony
(February 15, 1820 � March 13, 1906)
was a prominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women�s rights movement to introduce women�s suffrage into the United States. She was co-founder of the first Women�s Temperance Movement with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as President.She also co-founded the women�s rights journal, The Revolution. She traveled the United States and Europe, and averaged 75 to 100 speeches per year.She was one of the important advocates in leading the way for women�s rights to be acknowledged and instituted in the American government.

Marian Anderson
A photograph of Anderson by Carl Van Vechten taken in 1940.
(February 27, 1897 � April 8, 1993)
Marian Anderson was an African-American contralto and one of the most celebrated singers of the twentieth century.
Music critic Alan Blyth said �Her voice was a rich, vibrant contralto of intrinsic beauty.�Most of her singing career was spent performing in concert and recital in major music venues and with major orchestras throughout the United States and Europe between 1925 and 1965. Although she was offered contracts to perform roles with many important European opera companies, Anderson declined all of these, preferring to perform in concert and recital only. She did, however, perform opera arias within her concerts and recitals. She made many recordings that reflected her broad performance repertoire of everything from concert literature to lieder to opera to traditional American songs and spirituals.
Anderson became an important figure in the struggle for black artists to overcome racial prejudice in the United States during the mid twentieth century. In 1939, the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) refused permission for Anderson to sing to an integrated audience in Constitution Hall. Their race-driven refusal placed Anderson into the spotlight of the international community on a level usually only found by high profile celebrities and politicians. With the aid of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, Anderson performed a critically acclaimed open-air concert on Easter Sunday, April 9, 1939, on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., to a crowd of more than 75,000 people and a radio audience in the millions. She continued to break barriers for black artists in the United States, becoming the first black person, American or otherwise, to perform at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City on January 7, 1955. Her performance as Ulrica in Giuseppe Verdi�s Un ballo in maschera at the Met was the only time she sang an opera role on stage.
Anderson was also an important symbol of grace and beauty during the civil rights movement in the 1960s, singing at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in 1963. She also worked for several years as a delegate to the United Nations Human Rights Committee and as a �goodwill ambassadress� for the United States Department of State. The recipient of numerous awards and honors, Anderson was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1963, the Kennedy Center Honors in 1978, the National Medal of Arts in 1986, and a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1991.
Marian Anderson�s picture appears in on the $5000 paper Series I Bond issued by the US Treasury.

No comments: