Sunday, September 18, 2011


Josefa Ortiz married Miguel Domínguez in 1791 and moved to the town of Querétaro, where he was appointed corregidor (magistrate) by the viceroy of New Spain. Querétaro was a hotbed of revolutionary activity and Josefa was sympathetic to the independence cause. Miguel, as the highest official in town, had knowledge of crown affairs. Soon their home became a clearinghouse for information, with Josefa running intelligence to the independencistas, who were preparing to launch an uprising in December 1810. Colonial authorities got wind of the plans and ordered the town searched. Josefa warned the rebel leader, Miguel Hidalgo, who issued the call to arms on September 16, setting off the War of Independence. Josefa's role in the insurrection was eventually discovered and she was imprisoned in a nunnery from 1813 to 1817. La Corregidora, as she is known, is today revered as a heroine of the anticolonial struggle.

Rosa Chouteau
Flourished circa 1875, Oklahoma

The correct spelling of this name is ROSANA CHOUTEAU.

Rosana Chouteau was elected chief of the Osage Beaver Band, a clan of the Native American Osage Nation, in 1875, following the death of her uncle. She was the first female clan chief of that tribe

Ana Betancourt
b. 1832, Cuba; d. 1895, Cuba

The Cuban war of independence from Spain began in 1868. Mambisas—rebel women—played a crucial role in the insurgency, as political agitators, nurses, and fighters on the front lines. Ana Betancourt, a mambisa from a wealthy landholding family, belonged to the first generation of Cuban feminists. In 1869, she addressed the Constitutional Congress on behalf of women's rights, linking female emancipation to the abolition of slavery and the anticolonial struggle. Betancourt's plea went unheeded.

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